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Quality Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Three Clover Species in Relation to the Livestock Diet
(University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 2016-06-14)
Products of metabolism that are directly involved in growth, development and reproduction and also secondary products of metabolism were studied in 16 natural populations of three species of the genus Trifolium (T. repens – four populations, T. alpestre – three populations, T. pannonicum – nine populations), collected from the central Balkans region, i.e. territory of Serbia. Statistical analysis showed the presence of variability in all species of the test material. The best quality of dry matter, estimated by the ratio of crude protein and crude fiber, was achieved in the populations of white clover. In this species, average protein content was 216.4 g kg-1 while the average content of crude fiber was 222.4 g kg-1. The highest average content of total phenols (77.9 mg GA g-1), flavonoids (159.7 mg Ru g-1) and antioxidant activity (70.2 μg ml-1) was measured in populations of T. pannonicum by phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of plants. The content of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity in other species were extremely low. Populations of T. pannonicum were notable for fodder quality and antioxidant activity: CS091 with 186.2 g kg-1 of crude protein and antioxidant activity of 55 μg ml-1; RA123 with 175.6 g kg-1 of crude protein and a high level of antioxidant activity of 44.8 μg ml-1. It can be concluded that the selection of these populations may lead to creation of different varieties of fodder crops that could give safe animal feed and would be suitable for growing under adverse conditions of mountainous climate.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertiliser and Lime on the Floristic Composition, Soil Microbes and Dry Matter Yield of Danthonietum calycinae Grassland
(University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 2019-11-08)
Natural grasslands are significant resources for forage production, which is not exploited enough, mostly because of low production, as a result of bad grasslands management. The research has been carried out on the association Danthonietum calycinae to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen application rates (N20, N80 and N140) and lime (1 tha-1) on the floristic composition, soil microbes and dry matter yield. Botanic composition was strongly influenced by the treatments, especially by N applications. Nitrogen fertilisation led to significant increase of grass species in the association (from 57% to 82%), while higher rate of nitrogen caused a significant decrease of plants from other families (especially legumes). Application of low and medium rate of nitrogen positively effect on microbial abundant in soil, but the highest dose (140 kg N) reduced all microbial count, except fungi. Mineral nitrogen fertilisation had a favourable effect on dry matter yield in all treatments. The highest increase in dry matter yield relative to the control was in N140 treatments (6.66 t ha-1). Results indicated that optimal applications of nutrients for this association is application of PK and lime and 80 kg of nitrogen which enable high yield (6.38 t ha-1) in comparison with control (3.16 t ha-1) and preserving soil fertility and the environment at the same time.
The influence of lead acetate and actinomycetes on germination and growth of vetch plant (Vicia sativa L.)
(Agricultural Research Communication Center, 2018-10-10)
The influence of different lead acetate concentrations (10 -5 M, 10 -4 M, 10 -3 M, 10 -2 M and 2 x 10 -2 M) both with and without presence of actinomycetes on germination and initial growth (root, leaf length and stem height) of vetch plant (Vicia sativa L.) was rated. Different lead acetate concentrations and actinomycetes (Streptomyces sp.) of 5, 7 and 9 breed’s types were used to treat vetch plant seeds. It was perceived that high lead acetate concentration of 2 x 10 -2 M has inhibitory effect on the studied parameters. Probes with the highest concentrations of lead with the presence of actinomycetes as much as 60% more seeds germinated compared to the probes without actinomycetes. Low lead acetate concentrations have stimulating effect on these processes, as applied in the presence of microorganisms, and in probes without inoculation.
Effect of processing on vitamin C content, total phenols and antioxidative activity of organically grown red beetroot ('Beta vulgaris' ssp. 'Rubra')
(Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science (CEON/CEES), 2021)
The demand for organic food is rising since consumers want food from reliable, highest quality sources originating from the environment, undisturbed by cultivation and processing. It is necessary to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for the claims that organic food is of high quality. In this study, beetroot from an organic production system originating from 6 certified organic food producers from different geographic locations was examined. The organic beetroot samples were processed by pasteurization at 70 ºC and 90 ºC into beet juice or by drying at 55 ºC. The following samples were tested and compared: fresh beetroot, pasteurized beet juice and dried beetroot slices. The concentration of vitamin C, level of total phenol compounds (TPC) and antioxidative activity (TAA) in beetroot were influenced by the geographic origin and the applied processing method. The highest degradation for all analysed parameters was found in the samples treated by drying or pasteurisation at 90 ºC. The lowest losses of studied phytochemical components were observed during juice pasteurisation at 70 ºC. The correlation coefficient between TPC and TAA was high and significant (r2 = 0.966).
Protein and carbohydrate fractions of common vetch-oat mixtures depending on stage of growth and seeding rate in the mixtures
(Pensoft Publishers, 2020-11-08)
The production and utilization of intercropped legume- cereal bi-crops as ruminant feeds is beneficial for many reasons – legumes are rich in terms of protein concentration, whereas cereals are characterized by higher carbohydrate contents. To improve utilization of common vetch-oat mixtures as feed in Serbia, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate the crude protein (CP) and carbohydrate (CHO) fractions in these feeds using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) depending on the stage of plant development and seeding rate of common vetch and oat in the mixtures. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Institute for forage crops, Kruševac – Serbia, in 2015. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. In this research, pure stands of common vetch and oat, and their seed mixtures (common vetch:oat – 1:1.5; 1:1 and 1:0.5) were studied harvested at three different cutting stages: beginning of vetch flowering – 10% of flowering; forming the first pods on 2/3 vetch plants and forming green seeds in 2/3 pods. The samples were analyzed for protein and carbohydrate fractions according to CNCPS. Stage of growth affected significantly all carbohydrate and protein fractions, except unavailable PC fraction of crude protein which did not change with plant growth and development. The highest protein fraction was intermediately degraded PB2 fraction of crude protein. The highest carbohydrate fraction was available cell wall – CB3 fraction of carbohydrate. According to the results obtained in these investigations, it was concluded that common vetch-oat mixtures varied significantly with respect to their carbohydrate and protein fraction. Due to lower CC fraction, oat was superior feed in terms of total carbohydrates supply to ruminants. Among all investigated mixtures and pure stand of oat and common vetch, it could be conclude that mixture with 1:1 common vetch-oat rate was superior because of higher CA and CB3 fractions of total carbohydrate and the highest PB2 fraction of crude protein.